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靖远,中国西部一个文明古老的县份,黄河上游一方生机蓬勃的土地。她处于黄土高原西北边缘,位居甘肃省中部,山环水绕,地域辽阔,钟灵毓秀,人文荟萃,历史源远流长,文化积淀深厚,自古就是连接中原与西域的必经通道,成为古丝绸之路北线重镇之一。素有“秦陇枢机”、“金城锁钥”之称谓,被誉为“陇上名邑”、“黄河明珠”。
  
  靖远,历史悠久,文化灿烂。她犹如华夏文明摇篮中的一枝奇葩,以其厚重的历史文化底蕴,独特的地理人文景观,展现出不凡的气势,绚丽多姿,古朴典雅。追溯境内先民活动的踪迹,在距今五千年的新石器时代中晚期,这块古老的土地上便有人类生存繁衍,考古发现了堡子山、红嘴子、庙洼山等多处人类生活遗址,出土了大量陶器及石具文物。春秋战国时期,靖远为羌戎游牧地,保存有西周至春秋时期游牧民族的典型文化遗址——吴家川岩画。战国末期为秦国领地,秦统一中国后属北地郡。西汉武帝元鼎三年,始置祖厉、鹑阴县,肇启靖远两千一百多年的县级行政建制历史。元鼎五年,汉武帝西行巡游到达祖厉县,临黄河而返。南北朝时期,西魏大丞相宇文泰率部出征会师于祖厉县,欣然置为会州。历经隋唐宋元朝代,境内长期处于争战状态,唐末陷于吐蕃,宋代先后为西夏和金朝占领,州治多有迁徙,称谓频繁更易。明朝因边防需要,于正统二年设置靖虏卫,这里成为明王朝与北元蒙古国的军事冲突地带。清代顺治元年更名靖远卫,雍正八年改称靖远县。此后,行政隶属关系多有改变,但县名沿用至今。
  
  靖远,区位优越,物产丰富。她处在黄河上游古代中国游牧文明向农耕文明的过渡地带。很久以前,境内森林遍布,水草丰茂,曾经是古人类理想的游牧场地。由于黄河穿境而过,雨水充沛,河谷两岸大片冲积地带土质肥沃,光照充足,自然条件适宜早期农耕产业的形成和发展。东汉时期,靖远地属边陲,戍卒守边,实行军垦,境内屯田成片,阡陌纵横,成为古代农业开发较早的地区。唐代贞观年间,因盛产谷物,仓储殷实,改名粟州。明代设卫后,广垦荒田,修渠引水,灌溉农业由此发端,开黄河水利之先河。二十世纪七十至八十年代,先后建成兴堡子川、刘川、三场塬三大高扬程电力提灌工程,黄河沿岸一批小型水利工程相继上马,旱地变良田,荒漠起绿洲,靖远成为黄河上游重要的灌溉农业区。改革开放以来,现代农业科技的推广应用,农业产业结构的调整优化,蔬菜、养羊两大特色产业培育壮大,瓜果、夏杂粮、稻米等传统产业重点开发,实现了传统农业向现代农业的转变,农业大县名副其实,已建成瓜果、蔬菜、水稻等十大商品基地,形成地方农业名优特产品二十多个门类。靖远不仅是甘肃省最大的优质稻米生产区,被喻为“塞上小江南”,高效设施农业使反季节蔬菜生产形成规模优势,享有“陇原菜乡”的誉称,而且是甘肃省重要的羔羊肉产地和集散中心,陇上佳肴“靖远羊羔肉”美味可口,成为饮誉西北的地方美食品牌。靖远境内矿产资源丰富,已探明的有金、银、铜、铁、锰等金属矿藏,以及煤、石灰石、重晶石、高岭土、石膏、石英石、沸石等非金属矿藏,近年最新勘探发现的大型坡缕石矿,品位及蕴藏量均居世界前列。地方工业以煤炭开采为主,水泥、陶瓷、农业化工、农副产品加工等产业形成一定规模,独具地域优势。商贸流通等第三产业迅猛发展,民营经济快速成长,昔日“旱码头”情景再现,已跻身甘肃省个体私营经济十强县行列。
  
  靖远,钟灵毓秀,人才济济。历史上这里曾为边塞要地,人习武艺,不惮攻杀。自东汉末年至清代初期,将才辈出,风起云涌,先后有张济、张绣、郭斌、赵率教、吴瑛、路瑛、王进宝、潘育龙、宋可进等将帅之才二十多人,精忠报国,名垂青史。近代,崇文重教,学风蔚然,范振绪、陈国钧、朱铭心、苏振甲、张云锦、王定元等名流贤达,层出不穷,光耀陇原。现代,靖远又是一个具有光荣革命历史传统的地区。一九三二年,中共陕西省委派遣谢子长、焦唯炽策划领导的靖远起义,是甘肃党史上影响深远的重大历史事件。一九三三年,王儒林、李慕愚领导建立的“西北抗日义勇军”,是甘肃省较早的一支革命武装力量。一九三六年九月至十月,彭德怀率领的西方野战军(红一方面军)进驻靖远,策应红二、四方面军北上。徐向前、陈昌浩、李先念指挥红军在靖远虎豹口强渡黄河,点燃了革命的火种,一批靖远籍青年学生奔赴延安,投身革命事业,成为领导地方革命斗争的中坚力量,或为国捐躯,或功勋卓著。先烈英勇献身的革命精神,激励着世代靖远儿女,奋发努力,自强不息。
乾坤震荡,沧海桑田。经历悠悠岁月的风雨洗礼,走过人类社会漫长的发展里程,古老质朴的靖远,从凝重的历史陈迹中一步步走向现代的辉煌,恰似点缀在华夏文明天际上一颗耀眼的星辰,闪烁着璀璨的光芒。
 Jingyuan—The Historic County With A Profound Culture In The West
Of China Introduction
  
  Jingyuan, which is an ancient and civilized county in the west of
China, is a piece of land overflowing with vigor on upper reaches
of the Yellow River. Jingyuan is located in the center of Gansu
Province, lying on the northwestern border of the Loess Plateau,
surrounded by mountains and water and being vast in territory.
Besides, it has a long history with a profound culture, pregnant
with beauty and productive of talent and assembled by humanities.
Since ancient time, it has been the only way connecting Central
Plains with Western Regions, being one of the key counties on the
northern line of the Silk Road. So it is usually called as “the
hinge of Qinlong” and “the key of the Golden City” and also as “the
famous county of Long” and “the bright pearl of the Yellow River”.

  Jingyuan has a long history and splendid culture. It seems like a
unique flower in the cradle of the Hua Xia civilization. Because of
its profound history and culture, and unique landscapes of
geography and humanity, it shows imposing manner out of ordinary,
and it is magnificent and varied, simple and unsophisticated, and
elegant. Following the activity traces of ancient people, mankind
had lived on the piece of ancient land since the mid and latter
period of the New Stone Age 5000 years ago. The archaeologists have
found many life sites of mankind, such as Buzi Hill, Hongzuizi,
Miaowa Hill and so on. And many cultural or historical potteries
and stonewares have been excavated. During the period between the
Spring and Autumn and the Warring States, it was occupied by the
Rong and Qiang people who belonged to the minority in the north of
ancient China. And the Rock Paintings of Wujiachuan, which is a
typical cultural relic of nomadic tribes, were preserved. In the
latter period of the Warring States, it belonged to the state of
Qin. After the first Emperor of Qin unified China, it belonged to
Beidi Prefecture. In 114 BC (the third year for Yuanding) of the
Western Han Dynasty. The Zuli and Chunyin counties began to be set
up, it initiated the over 2100 years’ of history of administrative
establishment of Jingyuan County. In the 112 BC, the Emperor of Wu Di of the Han Dynasty rambled in the west and
reached the Zuli County, then went back when approaching the Yellow
River. During the period of the Northern and Southern Dynasty,
Yuwen Tai, the prime minister of the Western Wei Dynasty, led his
troops to go out to battles and joined forces in the Zuli County.
So, he was very pleased to set it up to be a prefecture. During the
period of the Sui, Tang, Song and Yuan Dynasties, it was in a
warring condition within its border for a long time. In the latter
period of the Tang Dynasty, it was occupied by the Tibetan regime
in ancient China, then occupied successively by the states of
Western Xia and Jin in the Song Dynasty. So its prefecture was
moved here and there many times and its name was changed
frequently. Because of the requirements of the frontier defence in
the Ming Dynasty, Jingluwei was set up in 1437 (the second year for
Zhengtong ). Then it became a clash zone of military affairs
between the Ming Dynasty and the Northern Yuan Dynasty of Mongolia.
In 1644, it was renamed Jingyuanwei, and in 1730, its name was
changed to Jingyuan County. Hereafter, the administrative
relationship was changed frequently, but its name lasted till now
without being changed.

  Jingyuan is advantageous in geography and rich in production. It
is in the transitional zone changing from nomadic to farming
civilization of ancient China on upper reaches of the Yellow River.
Long long ago, there were many forests with plenty of water and
lush grass within its border. So it had been an ideal nomadic site
for ancient people. Since the Yellow River flew through its border,
it had plenty of rainfall and sunshine, and the soil in the flowed
and accumulated zone of both sides of the river is fertile, and the
natural conditions were good for the formation and development of
farming industry in the earlier times. During the period of the
Eastern Han Dynasty, Jingyuan was located in the frontier and
garrison soldiers defended its border. So it carried out a policy
of “having garrison troops open up wasteland and grow good grain”,
then within its border it had many ports of land and the paths
crisscrossed in the fields. So it became an area which was the
earliest opened up for ancient farming. During the period of 627 to
650 (the years for Zhenguan in the Tang Dynasty), because it was
rich in cereal and granaries were full, its name was turned into
Suzhou. After the Ming Dynasty had set up protection, it began to
open up wasteland with a big increase, and dug irrigation ditches
in order to channel water into the fields. So the agricultural
irrigation began since then and ushered in a new example in water
conservancy works of the Yellow River. In the 1970s and 1980s,
three high-lift projects which irrigated by lifting water to a
higher level with electricity, were established in Xingbuzichuan,
Liuchuan and Sanchangyuan. A batch of small-sized water conservancy
works were set up one after another. As a result, dry land turned
into fertile farmland and desert turned into oasis, then Jingyuan
became the important irrigation farming zone on upper reaches of
the Yellow River. Since the implementation of reforming and opening
up policy, with the application of modern agricultural technology
and the adjustment of agriculture industrial structure, two
specialized industries, that is, vegetables and maintaining sheep,
have been strengthened step by step, and the exploit of the
traditional agriculture, such as fruits, cereals produced in
Summer, rice and so on, are highlighted. It realized the key change
from traditional to modern agriculture. The big agricultural county
has set up ten big commercial bases, such as fruits, vegetables,
rice and so on, and it has formed more than 20 departments of local
agricultural specialties worthy of its name. Jingyuan is not only
called “lush southern type of fields of the Great Wall” since it is
the biggest production area of superior rice in Gansu, but also
named “vegetable county of Longyuan” because its anti-season
production of vegetables has enjoyed the advantage of scale
production due to the application of the high efficiency facilities
for agriculture. It is also an important production site of lamb
and a center of collecting and distributing. The famous dish of
“Lamb of Jingyuan” is very delicious and becomes a well-known Brand
in the northwest. Jingyuan is rich in mineral resources. Metals
such as gold, silver, copper, iron, manganese etc, and nonmetals
such as coal, limestone, heavy spar, kaolin, gypsum, quartzite,
boiling stone etc, have been discovered. In the recent years
large-scale palygorskite mine has been newly discovered, its
average grade and reserves are situated in the top place of the
world. Local industry takes the exploitage of coal as the first,
and cement, china, chemical industry and side production of
agriculture etc, have formed regular scale and have had exclusive
advantages in territory. The third industry, such as trade and
commodity circulation and so on, has developed rapidly. The scene
of “dry dock” in the old days reappears and Jingyuan has become one
of the top ten counties in Gansu that has strong private economy.

  Jingyuan is pregnant with beauty and productive of talent, and
has an abundance of capable people. In the history, it was regarded
as the key frontier at that times, people exercised skills in
martial arts and were not in fear of attacking. From the latter
period of the Eastern Han Dynasty to the early Period of the Qing
Dynasty, many men with military talents appeared like winds rising
and clouds scudding. There were more than 20 people, such as Zhang
Ji, Zhang Xiu, Guo Bin, Zhao Shuaijiao, Wu Ying, Wang Jinbao, Pan
Yulong, Song Kejin etc in a succession. They served their country
with unreserved loyalty and were crowned with eternal glory. Since
modern times, people began to worship culture and value education,
and the academic atmosphere became common practice. Many famous
people like Fan Zhengxu, Chen Guojun, Zhu Mingxin, Su Zhengjia,
Zhang Yunjin, Wang Dingyuan and so on, emerged in an endless stream
and brought honour to Longyuan. In contemporary age, Jingyuan is an
area with honourable revolutionary tradition. In 1930, the Shanxi
provincial Party committee of the Communist Party of China,
delegated Xie Zichang and Jiao Weizhi to plan and lead the uprising
of Jingyuan, which is an important historical affair with
far-reaching influence in the Party history of Gansu. In 1933, the
“northwest resistance army of volunteers against Japan” was built
under the leadership of Wang Rulin and Li Muyu, which is one of the
earliest revolution armed forces in Gansu. In September and October
of 1936, the field army in the west led by Peng Dehuai (the First
Red Army) entered and stationed in Jingyuan to support the
northward movement of the Second and Fourth Red Army. Xu Xiangqian,
Chen Changhao, Li Xiannian commanded the Red Army to cross the
Yellow River forcefully at Hubaokou in Jingyuan and kindled the
flames of revolution. Then, a batch of young students who came from
Jingyuan hurried to Yan’an, threw themselves into revolution and
became the core strength to lead the local revolution. They either
sacrificed their lives for their country or had meritorious
services. The martyrs’ spirit of devoting themselves to the
revolution inspired the generations in Jingyuan to go all out to
make County strong and strive continuously to make new progress..

  Clouds over the world, mist shrouds the cosmos. From seas into
mulberry fields and from mulberry fields into seas—time brings
great changes to the world. Went through the long lasting wind and
rain and the endless development of human society. Old and simple
and unadorned Jingyuan moves towards glory from the dignified
history. It seems like a dazzling star embellishing in the sky of
the Hua Xia civilization and twinkling with bright light.
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